TM FITNESS BLOG

TMF BLOG

Strength Training for Endurance Sports


What The Evidence Says

What exactly are the potential benefits of doing strength training for endurance sport, considering that the styles of training seem extremely at odds with each other? A number of studies (of which these are just a mere drop in the data ocean) have shown that there are (at best) neutral adaptations in maximal oxygen uptake, otherwise known as V02max (1,2,3). But, that’s why endurance athletes do aerobic exercise so no surprises there.

However, research on soccer players showed a 13% increase in time to exhaustion on a cycle ergometer and that maximal strength (<85% 1RM) was associated with improved sprint times and jump height (2).

Ronnestad and Mujika’s 2015 paper exploring the effects of heavy and explosive strength training on endurance performance demonstrated a number of positive benefits, with oxygen economy being the main adaptation for runners (3). The table below summarises their findings.

Ronnestand & Mujika (2015)

It’s often said that strength training reduces injury risk and that is certainly my experience, I have never had a client do some resistance training for a period of time and then come back saying; "my running sucks and I'm injured all the time!" But, is there evidence for this? Well, all the way back in 1986 -the same year that Mike Tyson beat Trevor Berbick to win his first world title, Queen performed their iconic Wembley shows which were televised worldwide and a massive poster of Mr T adorned my bedroom door – a paper by Fleck was published (4). They concluded that strength training could indeed reduce injury risk by improving the following:

  • Increased bone density
  • Increased tendon, cartilage and ligament strength
  • Stronger connective tissues
  • Improved tendon to bone junction strength

How to incorporate Strength Training

A review of literature by Bazyler et al (2015) and published in the journal of strength and conditioning suggests that a block periodisation approach using the following training cycles could be optimal:

  • Strength-endurance
  • Basic strength
  • Strength and Power

Bazyler suggested 4-week blocks with the first 3 weeks of each block progressively loading up intensity and volume with the fourth week being a de-load prior to starting the next training phase (1). A typical de-load week will be 50-60% of your usual volume, keeping intensity about the same.

This will obviously depend on time, training schedule for the skills work, injury status and goals. Some athletes enjoy both strength training AND endurance training and apply a hybrid training approach that combines both powerlifting and endurance training. If this concurrent approach appeals to you then you will have to take your diet and recovery VERY seriously. It’s also advisable to do your strength training prior to the endurance training. For example, you might choose to do your resistance training routine in the AM and your long run or ride in the PM, giving yourself adequate recovery after the maximal strength work. But if you were to do the aerobic work first you would compromise strength performance due to muscle fatigue.

If your sport means that power to weight ratio is important and you don’t want too much of a hypertrophy effect the answer is simple. Two RT sessions per week 2-3 sets of each exercise at 3-8 reps per set. The volume is low enough that muscle growth will be minimal but intensity high enough that you still get a strength and power adaptation from the training.

Personally, I find that endurance athletes, runners in particular, adapt quite well to kettlebell training. There’s a much smaller chance of significant hypertrophy, the weights are mostly not heavy enough to produce too much overload and are therefore not so taxing that you couldn’t effectively perform both in one day without frying yourself out.

The dynamic nature of a lot of kettlebell exercises are such that there is an anaerobic and explosive strength aspect to them, which seems to make more logical sense to endurance athletes. They’re great for improving hip mobility and dynamic joint and core stability. That’s not to say endurance athletes shouldn’t use other types of strength training, They absolutely should, but kettlebells are convenient and less time consuming and you can own your own and train in your front room rather than joining a gym. Just something to think about, that's all.

Most of the exercises should be based around leg strength and core stability, but some upper body exercises for balance is recommended. I’ll often get runners and cyclists using the TRX for upper body exercises, so they don’t pack on much upper body bulk.

Anyway, here’s an example gym-based training program using the Bazyler periodisation template.

Example training plan.

Phase one, week 1-4; Strength-Endurance:

  1. Single leg deadlifts 2 x 8 (use a barbell or heavy kettlebells)
  2. Goblet squats 2 x 12 (Kettlebell or dumbbell)
  3. Single leg Stability ball Hamstring curls 2 x 15 (emphasise the eccentric phase)
  4. Lunges 2 x 10 (use a barbell across the back or hold a pair of kettlebells)
  5. Renegade rows 2 x 10 (alternating) (with kettlebells or dumbbells)
  6. Bear Crawls (option to use a weight vest)

Phase two week, 5-8; Basic strength:

  1. Trap Bar deadlifts 3 x 3
  2. Bulgarian Split Squats 3 x 5 (hold a heavy kettlebell on standing side)
  3. Nordic Ham Curls 3 x 5 use band assistance if necessary)
  4. Machine Chest press 2 x 6
  5. TRX Body Row 2 x 10
  6. Farmer walks (hold a pair of kettlebells)

Phase three, week 9-12; Explosive strength/Power

  1. Hang Cleans 3 x 3 or heavy Kettlebell Snatch 3 x 6
  2. Push Press 3 x 3 (Use heavy Kettlebells, dumbbells or Barbell)
  3. Plyometric Split Squat 3 x 4 (weighted)
  4. Kettlebell swings 5 x 20
  5. Box Jumps 3 x 4

TL;DNR

In summary, resistance training is worth adding into your training program if you are a recreational endurance athlete, or play a sport with an endurance element to it. Focus on mostly lower body, unless you really want or need to pack on some upper body bulk. Kettlebells are a good alternative to traditional weights, especially if the powerlifter style of training isn’t to your liking.

If you’re new to resistance training and don’t know where to start then it’s a good idea to get some personal coaching sessions with a trainer who understands strength and conditioning and has experience working with endurance athletes.

If you’re new to kettlebells and aren’t near enough to me to get some one-to-one coaching you could try my 6-week kettlebell challenge to build a foundation before moving on to more challenging exercises.

References:

  1. Bazyler, C., Abbott, H., Bellon, C., Taber, C. and Stone, M. (2015). Strength Training for Endurance Athletes. Strength and Conditioning Journal, 37(2), pp.1-12.
  2. Hoff, Jan and Jan Helgerud. “Endurance and strength training for soccer players: physiological considerations.” Sports medicine 34 3 (2004): 165-80
  3. Rønnestad, B. R., & Mujika, I. (2013). Optimizing strength training for running and cycling endurance performance: A review. Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports, 24(4), 603–612.doi:10.1111/sms.12104 
  4. Fleck, S. J., & Falkel, J. E. (1986). Value of Resistance Training for the Reduction of Sports Injuries. Sports Medicine, 3(1), 61–68.doi:10.2165/00007256-198603010-00006 

Coach Troy

 

Subscribe

* indicates required

TM Fitness will use the information you provide on this form to be in touch with you and to offer updates, banter and knowledge bombs. Please let me know all the ways you would like to hear from me:

You can change your mind at any time by clicking the unsubscribe link in the footer of any email you receive from us, or by contacting us at This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.. We will treat your information with respect. For more information about our privacy practices please visit our website. By clicking below, you agree that we may process your information in accordance with these terms.

We use Mailchimp as our marketing platform. By clicking below to subscribe, you acknowledge that your information will be transferred to Mailchimp for processing. Learn more about Mailchimp's privacy practices here.

 

 

Pin It